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Self-Care for Fatigue in Patients With HIV

Inge B. Corless
Eli Haugen Bunch
Jeanne K. Kemppainen
William L. Holzemer
Kathleen M. Nokes
Lucille Sanzero Eller
Carmen J. Portillo
Ellen Butensky
Patrice K. Nicholas
Catherine A. Bain
Sheila Davis
Kenn M. Kirksey
Fang-Yu Chou
ONF 2002, 29(5), E60-E69 DOI: 10.1188/02.ONF.E60-E69

Purpose/Objectives: To identify when fatigue is reported as a problem by people who are HIV positive, what the perception of fatigue is, and which self-care behaviors are used and with what efficacy.

Design: Multisite descriptive study.

Setting: University-based AIDS clinics, community-based organizations, and homecare agencies located in cities across the United States, in Norway, and through a university Web site.

Sample: Convenience sample of 422 self-identified people who are HIV positive.

Main Research Variables: Symptom description, symptom relief, symptom help, and self-care strategies.

Findings: The sixth most reported symptom in this study, fatigue, was treated with a variety of self-designed strategies. In only three instances was consultation with a healthcare provider (i.e., physician) or an injection (medication not defined) mentioned. The most frequently used interventions were supplements, vitamins, and nutrition followed by sleep and rest; exercise; adjusting activities, approaches, and thoughts; distraction; and complementary and alternative therapies. In addition to self-designed strategies, the media and friends and family were sources of information.

Conclusions: Fatigue was reported less frequently in this study than in other HIV-, AIDS-, or cancer-related studies. This may be an artifact of the study design. The use of informal networks for assistance, let alone the prevalence of unrelieved fatigue, indicates the need for more attention to this problem among people with AIDS.

Implications for Nursing: Careful assessment of the pattern of fatigue and its onset, duration, intervention, and resolution is required if the varied types of fatigue are to be identified and treated successfully.

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