Purpose/Objectives: To develop instruments to measure culturally related variables that may influence mammography screening behaviors in African American women.
Design: Instrumentation methodology.
Setting: Community organizations and public housing in the Indianapolis, IN, area.
Sample: 111 African American women with a mean age of 60.2 years and 64 Caucasian women with a mean age of 60 years.
Methods: After item development, scales were administered. Data were analyzed by factor analysis, item analysis via internal consistency reliability using Cronbach's alpha, and independent t tests and logistic regression analysis to test theoretical relationships.
Main Research Variables: Personal space preferences, health temporal orientation, and perceived personal control.
Findings: Space items were factored into interpersonal and physical scales. Temporal orientation items were loaded on one factor, creating a one-dimensional scale. Control items were factored into internal and external control scales. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the scales ranged from 0.76-0.88. Interpersonal space preference, health temporal orientation, and perceived internal control scales each were predictive of mammography screening adherence.
Conclusions: The three tested scales were reliable and valid. Scales, on average, did not differ between African American and Caucasian populations.
Implications for Nursing: These scales may be useful in future investigations aimed at increasing mammography screening in African American and Caucasian women.