The Delay and Worry Experience of African American Women With Breast Cancer
Purpose/Objectives: To examine the delay in seeking treatment and worry experiences of African American women with breast cancer.
American Cancer Society. (2005). <i>Cancer facts and figures 2005.</i> Atlanta, GA: Author.
Borkovec, T.D., Robinson, E., Pruzinsky, T., & DePree, J.A. (1983). Preliminary exploration of worry: Some characteristics and processes. <i>Behavior Research and Therapy, 21</i>, 9-16.
Bradley, P.K. (1999). <i>Attributions, worry and decision to seek treatment: Psychosocial adjustment of African American women to breast cancer.</i> Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Caplan, L.S., Helzlsouer, K.J., Shapiro, S., Freedman, L.S., Coates, R.J., & Edwards, B.K. (1995). System delay in breast cancer in whites and blacks. <i>American Journal of Epidemiology, 142</i>, 804-812.
Caplan, L.S., Helzlsouer, K.J., Shapiro, S., Wesley, M.N., & Edwards, B.K. (1996). Reasons for delay in breast cancer diagnosis. <i>Preventive Medicine, 25</i>, 218-224.
Coates, R.J., Bransfield, D.D., Wesley, M.N., Hankey, B., Eley, J.W., Greenberg, R.S., et al. (1992). Differences between black and white women with breast cancer in time from symptom recognition to medical consultation. Black/White Survival Study Group. <i>Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 84</i>, 938-950.
Cohen, J. (1988). <i>Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences</i> (2nd ed). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Conrad, M.E., Brown, P., & Conrad, M.G. (1996). Fatalism and breast cancer in black women. <i>Annals of Internal Medicine, 125</i>, 941-942.
Diefenbach, M.A., Miller, S.M., & Daly, M.B. (1999). Specific worry about breast cancer predicts mammography use in women at risk for breast and ovarian cancer. <i>Health Psychology, 18</i>, 532-536.
Easterling, D.V., & Leventhal, H. (1989). Contribution of concrete cognition to emotion: Neutral symptoms as elicitors of worry about cancer. <i>Journal of Applied Psychology, 74</i>, 787-796.
Facione, N.C. (1993). Delay versus help seeking for breast cancer symptoms: A critical review of the literature on patient and provider delay. <i>Social Science and Medicine, 36</i>, 1521-1534.
Facione, N.C., & Dodd, M.J. (1995). Women's narratives for helpseeking for breast cancer. <i>Cancer Practice, 3</i>, 219-225.
Facione, N.C., & Giancarlo, C.A. (1998). Narratives of breast symptom discovery and cancer diagnosis: Psychologic risk for advanced cancer at diagnosis. <i>Cancer Nursing, 21</i>, 430-440.
Facione, N.C., & Katapodi, M. (2000). Culture as an influence on breast cancer screening and early detection. <i>Seminars in Oncology Nursing, 16</i>, 238-247.
Farmer, B.J., & Smith, E.D. (2002). Breast cancer survivorship: Are African American women considered? A concept analysis. <i>Oncology Nursing Forum, 29</i>, 779-787.
Freeman, H.P., & Wasfie, T.J. (1989). Cancer of the breast in poor black women. <i>Cancer, 63</i>, 2562-2569.
Gates, M.F., Lackey, N.R., & Brown, G. (2001). Caring demands and delay in seeking care in African American women newly diagnosed with breast cancer: An ethnographic, photographic study. <i>Oncology Nursing Forum, 28</i>, 529-537.
Hoffman-Goetz, L., & Mills, S.L. (1997). Cultural barriers to cancer screening among African American women: A critical review of the qualitative literature. <i>Women's Health: Research on Gender, Behavior, and Policy, 3</i>, 183-201.
Hunter, C.P., Redmond, C.K., Chen, V.W., Austin, D.F., Greenberg, R.S., Correa, P., et al. (1993). Breast cancer: Factors associated with stage at diagnosis in black and white women. Black/White Survival Study Group. <i>Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 85</i>, 1129-1137.
Jennings, K. (1996). Getting black women to screen for cancer: Incorporating health beliefs into practice. <i>Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 8</i>, 53-59.
Jones, L.A., & Chilton, J.A. (2002). Impact of breast cancer on African American women: Priority areas for research in the next decade. <i>American Journal of Public Health, 92</i>, 539-542.
Joslyn, S., & West, M. (2000). Racial differences in breast carcinoma survival. <i>Cancer; 88</i>, 114-123.
Kreiger, N. (2002). Is breast cancer a disease of affluence, poverty, or both? The case of African American women. <i>American Journal of Public Health, 92</i>, 611-613.
Lannin, D.R., Mathews, H.F., Mitchell, J., Swanson, M.S., Swanson, F.H., & Edwards, M.S. (1998). Influence of socioeconomic and cultural factors on racial differences in late-stage presentation of breast cancer. <i>JAMA, 279</i>, 1801-1807.
Li, C.I., Malone, K.E., & Daling, J.R. (2003). Differences in breast cancer stage, treatment, and survival by race and ethnicity. <i>Archives of Internal Medicine, 163</i>, 49-56.
Lierman, L. (1988). Discovery of breast changes. Women's responses and nursing implications. <i>Cancer Nursing, 11</i>, 352-361.
Loescher, L. (2003). Cancer worry in women with hereditary risk factors for breast cancer. <i>Oncology Nursing Forum, 30</i>, 767-772.
Long, E. (1993). Breast cancer in African-American women. Review of the literature. <i>Cancer Nursing, 16</i>, 1-24.
McCaul, K.D., Branstetter, A.D., O'Donnell, S.M., Jacobson, K., & Quinlan, K.B. (1998). A descriptive study of breast cancer worry. <i>Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 21</i>, 565-579.
Miller, L.Y., & Hailey, B.J. (1994). Cancer anxiety and breast cancer screening in African-American women: A preliminary study. <i>Women's Health Issues, 4</i>, 170-174.
Mitchell, J., Lannin, D.R., Mathews, H.F., & Swanson, M.S. (2002). Religious beliefs and breast cancer screening. <i>Journal of Women's Health, 11</i>, 907-915.
Moore, R.J. (2001). African American women and breast cancer: Notes from a study of narrative. <i>Cancer Nursing, 24</i>, 35-42.
Moormeier, J. (1996). Breast cancer in black women. <i>Annals of Internal Medicine, 124</i>, 897-905.
Owens, R.G., & Heron, K. (1989). Accuracy of estimates of delay in seeking breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. <i>Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 7</i>, 193-197.
Phillips, J., & Smith, E.D. (2001). Breast cancer control and African American women: A review. <i>Cancer Investigation, 19</i>, 273-280.
Phillips, J.M. (1999). Breast cancer and African American women: Moving beyond fear, fatalism, and silence. <i>Oncology Nursing Forum, 26</i>, 1001-1007.
Phillips, J.M., Cohen, M.Z., & Moses, G. (1999). Breast cancer screening and African American women: Fear, fatalism, and silence. <i>Oncology Nursing Forum, 26</i>, 561-571. Powe, B.D. (1996). Cancer fatalism among African-Americans: A review of the literature. <i>Nursing Outlook, 44</i>, 18-21.
Powe, B.D., & Finnie, R. (2003). Cancer fatalism: The state of the science. <i>Cancer Nursing, 26</i>, 454-465.
Rajaram, S.S., & Rashidi, A. (1998). Minority women and breast cancer screening: The role of cultural explanatory models. <i>Preventive Medicine, 27</i>, 757-764.
Rose, D.P., & Royak-Schaler, R. (2001). Tumor biology and prognosis in black breast cancer patients: A review. <i>Cancer Detection and Prevention, 25</i>, 16-31.
Simon, M.S., & Severson, R.K. (1997). Racial differences in breast cancer survival: The interaction of socioeconomic status and tumor biology. <i>American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 176</i>, S233-S239.
Smith, E.D., Phillips, J.M., & Price, M.M. (2001). Screening and early detection among racial and ethnic minority women. <i>Seminars in Oncology Nursing, 17</i>, 159-170.
Trock, B.J. (1996). Breast cancer in African American women: Epidemiology and tumor biology. <i>Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 40</i>, 11-24.
Ware, J.E., Jr. (1976). Scales for measuring general health perceptions. <i>Health Services Research, 11</i>, 396-415