Purpose/Objectives: To identify the degree of oncology nursing representation on public Web sites of the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated comprehensive cancer centers (CCCs) in the United States.
Design: Qualitative, descriptive.
Setting: Web sites.
Sample: 40 CCCs.
Methods: Using the Google® search engine, a query was undertaken using the term National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center. The search resulted in linkage to the site www.cancer.gov, which provided Web site addresses for 40 CCCs. The CCCs were classified into five categories based on the degree of nursing representation evident throughout each Web site.
Main Research Variables: Presence and quality of four themes in the Web site specific to oncology nursing activity at the CCC: (a) recognition of nursing on the CCC home page; (b) citations and/or descriptions of nursing personnel, programs, or recognitions within the Web site; (c) existence of a dedicated nursing Web page; and (d) acknowledgment of the chief nursing officer at the CCC.
Findings: Only 2 of the 40 CCCs revealed broad representation of oncology nursing throughout their Web site. Nearly 63% of CCC Web sites had no or minimal content about nursing.
Conclusions: Public Web sites offer important information to patients with cancer, their families, and the general public. The absence of nursing in lay-oriented media devalues oncology nurses' highly specialized knowledge and skill.
Implications for Nursing: Considerable opportunity exists to enhance the public's awareness of the scope and complexity of contemporary oncology nursing within the 40 CCCs in the United States. Omission of positive messages about nurses' work in hospital-related media misleads the public that nurses are not integral members of the multidisciplinary team. With the continued absence of both descriptive and results-oriented work quantification, oncology nurses will remain unable to communicate their worth to the public, nor take credit for their care.
Auerbach, D. I., Buerhaus, P. I., & Staiger, D. O. (2007). Better late than never: Workforce supply implications of later entry into nursing. <i>Health Affairs</i>, 26, 178-185.
Barker, E. (2001). Increase your visibility. <i>RN</i>, 64, 41-42.
Barnet, D. (2007, September). Will the "real" nurse please stand up? <i>Work Nurse</i>, 18-21.
Boyington, A. R., Jones, C. B., & Wilson, D. L. (2006). Buried alive: The presence of nursing on hospital Websites. <i>Nursing Research</i>, 55, 103-109.
Boyle, D. (2008). Stand up to anonymity [Editorial]. <i>Oncology Nursing Forum</i>, 35, 867. doi: 10.1188/08.ONF.867
Buresh, B., & Gordon, S. (2000). <i>From silence to voice: What nurses know and must communicate to the public</i>. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Carty, B., Coughlin, C., Kasoff, J., & Sullivan, B. (2000). Where is the nursing presence on the medical center's Website? <i>Journal of Nursing Administration</i>, 30, 569-570.
Diers, D. (2004). <i>Speaking of nursing: Narratives of practice, research, policy, and the profession</i>. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Ebright, P. R. (2004). Understanding nurse work. <i>Clinical Nurse Specialist</i>, 18, 168-170. doi: 10.1097/00002800-200407000-00002
Ebright, P. R., Patterson, E. S., Chalko, B. A., & Render, M. L. (2003). Understanding the complexity of registered nurse work in acute care settings. <i>Journal of Nursing Administration</i>, 33, 630-638.
Fletcher, K. (2007). Image: Changing how women nurses think about themselves. A literature review. <i>Journal of Advanced Nursing</i>, 58, 207-215. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04285.x
Friedman, E. (1990). Troubled past of an "invisible" profession. <i>JAMA</i>, 264, 2851-2858.
Fulton, J. S. (2007). The image of nurses matters [Editorial]. <i>Clinical Nurse Specialist</i>, 21, 179-180. doi: 10.1097/01.NUR.0000280495.10120.ee
Gallup. (2009). Gallup poll votes nurses most trusted profession. Retrieved from <a target="_blank" href='http://www.nursingworld.org/ANA-What-Is-New/Gallup-Votes-Nurses-Most-Tru...
Gallup. (2010). Nursing leadership from bedside to boardroom: Opinion leaders perceptions. Retrieved from <a target="_blank" href='http://www.nursingworld.org/DocumentVault/…RWJF-Gallup-Poll.aspx'>www.nursingworld.org/DocumentVault/…RWJF-Gallup-Poll.aspx</a>
Gordon, S. (1997). <i>Life support: Three nurses on the front lines</i>. New York, NY: Little Brown and Company.
Gordon, S. (2005). <i>Nursing against the odds: How healthcare cost cutting, media stereotypes, and medical hubris undermine nurses and patient care</i>. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press
Gordon, S., & Nelson, S. (2005). An end to angels: Moving away from the "virtue script" toward a knowledge-based identity for nurses. <i>AJN</i>, 105(5), 62-69.
Haylock, P. J. (2008). Cancer nursing: Past, present, and future. <i>Nursing Clinics of North America</i>, 43, 179-203. doi: 10.1016/j.cnur.2008.02.003
Heron, E. (1998). <i>Tending lives: Nurses on the medical front</i>. New York, NY: Ballantine Publishing Group.
Institute of Medicine. (2004). <i>Keeping patients safe: Transforming the work environment of nurses</i>. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Kalisch, B. J., Begeny, S., & Neumann, S. (2007). The image of nursing on the Internet. <i>Nursing Outlook</i>, 55, 182-188. Retrieved from http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0029-6554-(06)00247-8 <a target="_blank" href='http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0029-6554-(06)00247-8'>http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0029-6554-(06)00247-8</a>
Kasoff, J. (2006). How do hospitals represent the image of nursing on their Websites? <i>Journal of Nursing Administration</i>, 36, 73-78.
Krebs, L. U., Myers, J., Decker, G., Kinzler, J., Asfahani, P., & Jackson, J. (1996). The oncology nurse image: Lifting the mist. <i>Oncology Nursing Forum</i>, 23, 1297-1304.
National Cancer Institute. (2009). Our history. Retrieved from <a target="_blank" href='http://cancercenters.cancer.gov/about/our-history.html'>http://cancercen...
Needleman. J., & Hassmiller, S. (2009). The role of nursing in improving hospital quality and efficiency: Real-world results. <i>Health Affairs</i>, 28(4), w625-w633. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.28.4.w625
Potter, P., Boxerman, S., Wolf, L., Marshall, J., Grayson, D., Sledge, J., Evanoff, B. (2004). Mapping the nursing process: A new approach for understanding the work of nursing. <i>Journal of Nursing Administration</i>, 34, 101-109.
Potter, P., Wolf, L., Boxerman, S., Grayson, D., Sledge, J., Dunagan, C., & Evanoff, B. (2005). Understanding the cognitive work of nursing in the acute care environment. <i>Journal of Nursing Administration</i>, 35, 327-335. doi: 10.1097/00005110-200507000-00004
Powers, P. (2001). The image of nursing in hospital promotional materials: A discourse analysis. <i>Scholarly Journal for Nursing Practice: An International Journal</i>, 15, 91-108.
Sanchez, P. M. (2000). The potential of Website marketing. <i>Health Marketing Quarterly</i>, 18, 45-57. doi: 10.1300/J026v18n01_04
Scharfe-Pretino, T., & Von Bacho, S. (2006). Nursing Intranet Website: A critical communication tool. <i>Journal of Nursing Care Quality</i>, 21, 104-109.
Song, L., Maples, S., Northouse, L., Schafenacker, A., Newth, G., Friedman, L., & Lunsford, N. (2009). <i>The analysis of public Websites for cancer patients and caregivers</i>. Poster session presented at the 2009 ONS Nursing Research Conference in Orlando, FL.
Styles, M. M. (2006). <i>Nursing speaks for itself: A declaration on the education and work environment of the nurse force</i>. Silver Spring, MD: American Nurses Association.
Summers, S., & Summers, H. J. (2009). <i>Saving lives: Why the media's portrayal of nurses puts us all at risk</i>. New York, NY: Kaplan Publishing.
Takase, M., Kershaw, E., & Burt, L. (2002). Does the public image of nurses matter? <i>Journal of Professional Nursing</i>, 18, 196-205.
Wineberg, D. B. (2003). <i>Code green: Money-driven hospitals and the dismantling of nurses</i>. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.