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Comparison of Breast Cancer Risk Estimations, Risk Perception, and Screening Behaviors in Obese Rural Korean Women

SoMi Park
Barbara B. Cochrane
Sang Baek Koh
ChaeWeon Chung
ONF 2011, 38(6), E394-E401 DOI: 10.1188/11.ONF.E394-E401

Purpose/Objectives: To assess three breast cancer risk assessment tools in obese rural Korean women.

Design: Cross-sectional survey design.

Setting: Community settings in the rural region of northeastern South Korea.

Sample: A nested cohort sample of 64 severely obese women aged 40-60 years from the Korean Genomic Regional Cohort registry.

Methods: The Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool of the National Cancer Institute (BCRAT-NCI), Breast Cancer Risk Appraisal for Korean Women (BCRA-K), and Estimation of Individualized Probabilities of Developing Breast Cancer for Korean Women (EIPDBC-K) were used for interview data. Mammography, women's perceptions, and screening behaviors also were analyzed.

Main Research Variables: Breast cancer risk assessment, mammography findings, women's perceptions of breast cancer risk, and breast cancer screening behaviors.

Findings: A total of 5 (BCRAT-NCI), 19 (BCRA-K), and 43 (EIPDBC-K) women were at higher (above average or high) risk for breast cancer. The BCRA-K (r = 0.28, p < 0.05) and EIPDBC-K (r = 0.43, p < 0.001) correlated with mammography findings. However, the BCRAT-NCI correlated only with the BCRA-K. Women's breast self-examination (χ2 = 4.77, p < 0.05) and mammography findings (χ2 = 5.22, p < 0.05) differed according to their risk perception.

Conclusions: Risk assessment by the BCRA-K and EIPDBC-K was related to mammography findings. Women's perception of breast cancer risk influenced their screening behaviors. When choosing a risk assessment tool, healthcare professionals should consider the ethnic and cultural backgrounds of the target population.

Implications for Nursing: Healthcare professionals should use appropriate risk assessment tools in breast cancer education and counseling to help women understand their risk factors and adopt proper health behaviors.

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