0
No votes yet
Article

Developing Emotional Intelligence Ability in Oncology Nurses: A Clinical Rounds Approach

Estelle Codier
Beth Freitas
Lynn Muneno
ONF 2013, 40(1), 22-29 DOI: 10.1188/13.ONF.22-29

Purpose/Objectives: To explore the feasibility and impact of an emotional intelligence ability development program on staff and patient care.

Design: A mixed method, pre/post-test design.

Setting: A tertiary care hospital in urban Honolulu, HI. Rounds took place on a 24-bed inpatient oncology unit.

Sample: 33 RNs in an oncology unit.

Methods: After collection of baseline data, the emotional intelligence rounds were conducted in an inpatient oncology nursing unit on all shifts during a 10-month period.

Main Research Variables: Demographic information, emotional intelligence scores, data from rounds, chart reviews of emotional care documentation, and unit-wide satisfaction and safety data.

Findings: The ability to identify emotions in self and others was demonstrated less frequently than expected in this population. The low test response rate prevented comparison of scores pre- and postintervention.

Conclusions: The staff's 94% participation in rounds, the positive (100%) evaluation of rounds, and poststudy improvements in emotional care documentation and emotional care planning suggest a positive effect from the intervention. Additional research is recommended over a longer period of time to evaluate the impact emotional intelligence specifically has on the staff's identification of emotions. Because the intervention involved minimal time and resources, feasibility for continuation of the intervention poststudy was rated "high" by the research team.

Implications for Nursing: Research in other disciplines suggests that improvement in emotional intelligence ability in clinical staff nurses may improve retention, performance, and teamwork in nursing, which would be of particular significance in high-risk clinical practice environments.

Knowledge Translation: Few research studies have explored development of emotional intelligence abilities in clinical staff nurses. Evidence from this study suggests that interventions in the clinical environment may be used to develop emotional intelligence ability. Impact from such development may be used in the future to not only improve the quality of nursing care, but also potentially limit the negative effects of high-stress environments on nurses.

References 

Abraham, R. (2005). Emotional intelligence in the workplace: A review and synthesis. In R. Schultze & R. D. Roberts (Eds.), <i>Emotional intelligence: An international handbook</i> (p. 255). Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe and Huber.

Akerjordet, K., & Severinsson, E. (2007). Emotional intelligence: A review of the literature with specific focus on empirical and epistemological perspectives. <i>Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16</i>, 1405-1416. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2006.01749.x

Augusto Landa, J. M., López-Zafra, E., Berrios Martos, M. P., & Aguilar-Luzón, C. (2008). The relationship between emotional intelligence, occupational stress and health in nurses: A questionnaire survey. <i>International Journal of Nursing Studies, 45</i>, 888-901. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2007.03.005

Barnard, D., Street, A., & Love, A. W. (2006). Relationships between stressors, work supports and burnout among cancer nurses. <i>Cancer Nursing, 29</i>, 338-345.

Birks, Y., McKendree, J., & Watt, I. (2009). Emotional Intelligence and perceived stress in healthcare students: a multiinstitutional, multi-professional survey. <i>BMC Medical Education, 9</i>(61), 1-8.

Brackett, M. A., & Mayer, J. D. (2003). Convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity of competing measures of emotional intelligence. <i>Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29</i>, 1147-1158.

Brackett, M. A., Rivers, S. E., Shiftman, S., Lerner, N., & Salovey, P. (2006). Relating emotional abilities to social functioning: A comparison of self-report and performance measures of emotional intelligence. <i>Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91</i>, 780-795.

Budnik, M. F. (2003). Emotional intelligence and burnout: Influence on the intent of staff nurses to leave nursing. <i>Dissertation Abstracts International, 64</i>(09), 4281B (UMI No. 3106490).

Bulmer Smith, K., Profetto-McGrath, J., & Cummings, G. G. (2009). Emotional Intelligence and nursing: An integrative literature review. <i>International Journal of Nursing Studies, 46</i>, 1625-1635. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2009.05.024

Cherniss, C., Grimm, L. G., & Liautaud, J. P. (2010). Process-designed training: A new approach for helping leaders develop emotional and social competence. <i>Journal of Management Development, 29</i>, 413-431. doi:10.1108/02621711011039196

Clarke, N. (2010). Developing emotional intelligence abilities through team-based learning. <i>Human Resource Development Quarterly, 21</i>(2), 119-138. doi:10.1002/hrdq.20036

Codier, E., Kamikawa, C., Kooker, B. M., & Shoultz, J. (2009). Emotional intelligence, performance, and retention in clinical staff nurses. <i>Nursing Administration Quarterly, 33</i>, 310-316. doi:10.1097/NAQ.0b013e3181b9dd5d

Codier, E., Kooker, B. M., & Shoultz, J. (2008). Measuring the emotional intelligence of clinical staff nurses: An approach for improving the clinical care environment. <i>Nursing Administration Quarterly, 32</i>, 8-14.doi:10.1097/01.NAQ.0000305942.38816.3b

Codier, E., Muneno, L., Franey, K., & Matsuura, F. (2010). Is emotional intelligence an important concept for nursing practice? <i>Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 17</i>, 940-948. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2850.2010.01610.x

Codier, E., Muneno, L., & Freitas, E. (2011). Emotional intelligence abilities in oncology and palliative care. <i>Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care Nursing, 13</i>(3), 183-188. doi:10.1097/NJH.0b013e31820ce14b

Côté, S., & Miners, C. T. H. (2006). Emotional intelligence, cognitive intelligence, and job performance. <i>Administrative Science Quarterly, 51</i>(1), 1-28.

Cummings, G., Hayduk, L., & Estabrooks, C. (2005). Mitigating the impact of hospital restructuring on nurses: The responsibility of emotionally intelligent leadership. <i>Nursing Research, 54</i>(1), 2-12.

Farmer, S. (2004). The relationship of emotional intelligence to burnout and job satisfaction among nurses in early nursing practice. <i>Dissertation Abstracts International, 65</i>(08), 3945B (UMI No. 3141849).

Gertis, L., Derksen, J. J., & Verbruggen, A. B. (2004). Emotional intelligence and adaptive success of nurses caring for people with mental retardation and severe behavior problems. <i>Mental Retardation, 42</i>(2), 106-121. doi:10.1352/00476765(2004)42<106:EIAASO>2.0.CO;2)

Grant, A. M. (2007). Enhancing coaching skills and emotional intelligence through training. <i>Industrial and Commercial Training, 39</i>, 257-266.

Heffernan, M., Quinn Griffin, M. T., McNulty, S. R., & Fitzpatrick, J. J. (2010). Self-compassion and emotional intelligence in nurses. <i>International Journal of Nursing Practice, 16</i>, 366-373. doi:10.1111/j.1440-172X.2010.01853.x

Humpel, N., Caputi, P., & Martin, C. (2001). The relationship between emotions and stress among mental health nurses. <i>Australian and New Zealand Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 10</i>(1), 55-60.

Kirk, B. A., Schutte, N. S., & Hine, D. W. (2011). The effect of an expressive-writing intervention for employees on emotional self-efficacy, emotional intelligence, affect, and workplace incivility. <i>Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 41</i>(1), 179-195.

Kooker, B. M., Shoultz, J., & Codier, E. E. (2007). Identifying emotional intelligence in professional nursing practice. <i>Journal of Professional Nursing, 23</i>(1), 30-36. doi:10.1016/j.profnurs.2006.12.004

Kotsou, I., Nelis, D., Grégoire, J., & Mikolajczak, M. (2011). Emotional plasticity: Conditions and effects of improving emotional competence in adulthood. <i>Journal of Applied Psychology, 96</i>, 827-839.

Kruml, S. M., & Yockey, M. D. (2011). Developing the emotionally intelligent leader: Instructional issues. <i>Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 18</i>, 207-215. doi:10.1177/1548051810372220

Lando, J. (2007). The relationship between emotional intelligence, occupational stress and health in nurses. <i>International Journal of Nursing Studies, 45</i>, 888-901.

Martin, C. M. (2008). <i>A meta-analytic investigation of the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness.</i> Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (AAT 3303343).

Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2004). Emotional intelligence: Theory, findings, and implications. <i>Psychological Inquiry, 15</i>, 197-215. doi:10.1207/s15327965pli1503_02

Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2008). Emotional intelligence: New ability or eclectic traits? <i>American Psychologist, 63</i>, 503-517.

McEnrue, M. P., Groves, K. S., & Shen, W. (2009). Emotional intelligence development: Leveraging individual characteristics. <i>Journal of Management Development, 28</i>, 150-174. doi:10.1108/02621710910932106

McEnrue, M. P., Groves L. S., & Shen, W. (2010). Emotional intelligence training: Evidence regarding its efficacy for developing leaders. <i>Kravis Leadership Institute, Leadership Review, 10</i>, 3-26.

Medland, J., Howard-Ruben, J., & Whitaker, E. (2004). Fostering psychosocial wellness in oncology nurses: Addressing burnout and social support in the workplace. <i>Oncology Nursing Forum, 31</i>, 47-54.

Montes-Berges, B., & Augusto, J. M. (2007). Exploring the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence, coping, social support and mental health in nursing students. <i>Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 14</i>, 163-171. doi:10.1111/j.13652850.2007.01059.x

Morrison, J. (2008). The relationship between emotional intelligence competencies and preferred conflict handling styles. <i>Journal of Nursing Management, 16</i>, 974-983

Muyia, H. M., & Kacirek, K. (2009). An empirical study of a leadership development training program and its impact on emotional intelligence quotient (EQ) scores. <i>Advances in Developing Human Resources, 11</i>, 703-718. doi:10.1177/1523422309360844

Nelis, D., Quoidbach, J., Mikolajczak, M., & Hansenne, M. (2009). Increasing emotional intelligence: (How) is it possible? <i>Personality and Individual Differences, 47</i>, 36-41. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2009.01.046

Palmer, B. R., Gignac, G., Manocha, R., & Stough, C. (2005). A psychometric evaluation of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test version 2.0. <i>Intelligence, 33</i>, 285-305. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2009.01.046

Pfifferling, J. H., & Gilley, K. (2000). Overcoming compassion fatigue. <i>Family Practice Management, 7</i>(4), 39-44.

Por, J., Barriball, L., Fitzpatrick, J., & Roberts, J. (2011). Emotional intelligence: Its relationship to stress, coping, well-being and professional performance in nursing students. <i>Nurse Education Today, 31</i>, 855-860. doi:10.1016/j.nedt.2010.12.023

Potter, P., Deshields, T., Divanbeigi, J., Berger, J., Cipriano, D., Norris, L., & Olsen, S. (2010). Compassion fatigue and burnout: Prevalence among oncology nurses. <i>Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 14</i>, E56-E62.

Rego, A., Godinho, L., McQueen, A., & Cunha, M. P. (2010). Emotional intelligence and caring behaviour in nursing. <i>Service Industries Journal, 30</i>, 1419-1437. doi:10.1080/02642060802621486

Rosete, D., & Ciarrochi, J. V. (2005). Emotional intelligence and its relationship to workplace performance outcomes of leadership effectiveness. <i>Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 26</i>, 388-399. doi:10.1108/01437730510607871

Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Thorsteinsson, E. B., Bhullar, N., & Rooke, S. E. (2006). A meta-analytic investigation of the relationship between emotional intelligence and health. <i>Personality and Individual Differences, 42</i>, 921-933. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2006.09.003

Shanta, L. L. (2007). A quasi-experimental study of the impact of nursing education on the development of EU above the level acquired through education. Retrieved from Proquest Dissertations and Theses. (UMI No. 3257552)

Tjiong, L. (2000). <i>The relationship between emotional intelligence, hardiness and job stress among registered nurses</i> (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Sarasota, Florida.

Vitello-Cicciuo, J. M. (2002). Exploring emotional intelligence: Implications for nursing leaders. <i>Journal of Nursing Administration, 32</i>, 203-210.

Young-Ritchie, C., Laschinger, H. K. S., & Wong, C. (2009). The effects of emotionally intelligent leadership behaviour on emergency staff nurses' workplace empowerment and organization commitment. <i>Nursing Leadership, 22</i>, 70-85.