0

No votes yet

Journal Club
Open Access Article

Effects of Social Support on Physical Activity, Self-Efficacy, and Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors and Their Caregivers

Fedricker Diane Barber
ONF 2013, 40(5), 481-489 DOI: 10.1188/13.ONF.481-489

Purpose/Objectives: To explore the relationships between adult cancer survivor and caregiver social support, self-efficacy for physical activity (SEPA), physical activity (PA) behavior, and quality of life (QOL); and to understand cancer survivors' and their caregivers' perceptions of social support in PA participation.

Design: Quasi-experimental.

Setting: Five community-based exercise sites located in East Texas.

Sample: 101 adult cancer survivors and caregivers.

Methods: Participants completed questionnaires, the 8-Foot Up-and-Go test, and open-ended questions. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and frequencies, Spearman's rho, Mann-Whitney U, and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis.

Main Research Variables: Social support, SEPA, PA, and QOL.

Findings: Physical QOL was significantly higher in caregivers than cancer survivors. Spearman's rho identified a negative relationship between physical QOL and PA in cancer survivors; and a significant relationship between PA and PA participation in caregivers with social support from friend. Three themes emerged from the qualitative data regarding the perception of social support: companionship, motivation, and health promotion.

Conclusions: Caregivers have higher QOL despite being the major social support provider to cancer survivors. Social support is essential to PA participation.

Implications for Nursing: Interventions to increase PA in adult cancer survivors may consider encouraging their caregivers to actively participate.

Knowledge Translation: Caregivers play an important role in the PA of cancer survivors. Perceived social support in the form of companionship and motivation may increase PA in cancer survivors and caregivers. Therefore, nurses may consider educating cancer survivors and caregivers on the importance of adopting and maintaining PA throughout the cancer care continuum.

References 

Alfano, C. M., Day, J. M., Katz, M. L., Herndon, J. E., Bittoni, M. A., Oliveri, J. M., … Paskett, E. D. (2009). Exercise and dietary change after diagnosis and cancer-related symptoms in long-term survivors of breast cancer: CALGB 79804. <i>Psycho-Oncology, 18</i>, 128-133.

American Association of Retired Persons. (2009). <i>Caring in the U. S.</i> Retrieved from <a target="_blank" href='http://www.caregiving.org/pdf/research/CaregivingUSAllAgesExecSum.pdf'>h...

American College of Sports Medicine. (2007). Physical inactivity and obesity translates into economic impact: Experts profile the cost to U. S. health system. <i>Medical News Today.</i> Retrieved from <a target="_blank" href='http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/73484.php'>http://www.medicalne...

American College of Sports Medicine. (2010). New guidelines strongly recommend exercise for cancer patients, survivors. Retrieved from <a target="_blank" href='http://www.acsm.org/about-acsm/media-room/news-releases/2011/08/01/new-g...

Bandura, A. (1986). <i>Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.</i> Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Bandura, A. (1997). <i>Self-efficacy: The exercise of control.</i> New York, NY: W. H. Freeman.

Bandura, A. (2002). Social cognitive theory of mass communication. In J. Bryant & D. Zillman (Eds.), <i>Media effects: Advances in theory and research</i> (2nd ed., pp. 94-124). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Bandura, A. (2004). Health promotion by social cognitive means. <i>Health Education and Behavior, 31</i>, 143-164.

Barber, F. D. (2012). Social support and physical activity engagement by cancer survivors [Online exclusive]. <i>Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing, 16</i>, E84-E98. doi:10.1188/12.CJON.E84-E98

Blum, K., & Sherman, D. W. (2010). Understanding the experience of family caregivers: A focus on transitions. <i>Seminars in Oncology Nursing, 26</i>, 243-258.

Bowling, A. (2005). Mode of questionnaire administration can have serious effects on data quality. <i>Journal of Public Health, 27</i>, 281-291.

Branchard, C. M., Courneya, K. S., & Stein, K. (2008). Cancer survivors' adherence to lifestyle behavior recommendations and associations with health-related quality of life: Results from the American Cancer Society's SCS-II. <i>Journal of Clinical Oncology, 26</i>, 2198-2204.

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. <i>Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3</i>, 77-101. doi:10.1191/1478088706qp063oa

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2008). Sports and exercise. Retrieved from <a target="_blank" href='http://www.bls.gov/spotlight/2008/sports/'>http://www.bls.gov/spotlight/...

Grimmett, C., Bridgewater, J., Steptoe, A., & Wardle, J. (2011). Lifestyle and quality of life in colorectal cancer survivors. <i>Quality of Life Research, 20</i>, 1237-1245.

Haas, B. K. (2011). Fatigue, self-efficacy, physical activity, and quality of life in women with breast cancer. <i>Cancer Nursing, 34</i>, 322-334. doi:10.1097/NCC.0b013e3181f9a300

Hamer, M., Stamatakis, E., & Saxton, J. M. (2009). The impact of physical activity on all-cause mortality in men and women after a cancer diagnosis. <i>Cancer Causes and Control, 20</i>, 225-231.

Han, K., Richard, M. D., & Fellingham, G. W. (2009). Effects of a 4-week exercise program on balance using elastic tubing as a perturbation force for individuals with a history of ankle sprains. <i>Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 39</i>, 246-255.

Imayama, I., Alfano, C., Mason, C. E., Wang, C., Xiao, L., Duggan, C., … McTiernan, A. (2013). Exercise adherence, cardiopulmonary fitness and anthropometric changes improve exercise self-efficacy and health-related quality of life. <i>Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 10</i>, 676-689.

James, A. S., Campbell, M. K., DeVellis, B., Reedy, J., Carr, C., & Sandler, R. S. (2006). Health behavior correlates among colon cancer survivors: NC STRIDES baseline results … strategies for improving diet, exercise, and screening. <i>American Journal of Health Behavior, 30</i>, 720-730.

Maiter, S., Simich, L., Jacobson, N., & Wise, J. (2008). Reciprocity: An ethic for community-based participatory action research. <i>Action Research, 6</i>, 305-325.

McNeill, L. H., Kreuter, M. W., & Subramanian, S. V. (2006). Social environment and physical activity: A review of concepts and evidence. <i>Social Science and Medicine, 63</i>, 1011-1022. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.03.012

Mustian, K. M., Peppone, L., Darling, T. V., Palesh, O., Heckler, C. E., & Morrow, G. R. (2009). A four-week home-based aerobic and resistance exercise program during radiation therapy: A pilot randomized clinical trial. <i>Journal of Supportive Oncology, 7</i>, 158-167.

Peterson, J. A., Yates, B. C., & Hertzog, M. (2008). Heart and soul physical activity program: Social support outcomes. <i>American Journal of Health Behavior, 32</i>, 525-537.

Portney, L. G., & Watkins, M. P. (2009). <i>Foundations of clinical research applications to practice.</i> Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Resnick, B., Luisi, D., & Vogel, A. (2008). Testing the senior exercise self-efficacy project (SESEP) for use with urban dwelling minority older adults. <i>Public Health Nursing, 25</i>, 221-234.

Rikli, R. E. & Jones, C. S. (1999). Development and validation of a functional fitness test for community-residing older adults. <i>Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 7</i>, 129-161.

Sallis, J. F., Grossman, R. M., Pinski, P. B., Patterson, T. L., & Nader, P. R. (1987). The development of scales to measure social support for diet and exercise behaviors. <i>Preventive Medicine, 16</i>, 825-836.

Sallis, J. F., Pinski, P. B., Grossman, R. M., Patterson, T. L., & Nader, P. R. (1988). The development of self-efficacy scales for health-related diet and exercise behaviors. <i>Health Education Research, 3</i>, 283-292.

Shibata, K. N. (2008). <i>Reliability and validity of the 8-Foot Up-and-Go test as a measure of dynamic balance and functional mobility in persons with fibromyalgia.</i> (Master's thesis). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 1454813)

Shiovitz-Ezra, S., & Litwin, H. (2012). Social network type and health-related behaviors: Evidence form an American National Survey. <i>Social Science and Medicine, 75</i>, 901-904.

Speed-Andrews, A. E., & Courneya, K. S. (2009). Effects of exercise on quality of life and prognosis in cancer survivors. <i>Current Sports Medicine Reports, 8</i>, 176-181.

Van Ryn, M., Sanders, S., Kahn, K., van Houtven, C., Griffin, J. M., Martin, M., … Rowland, J. (2011). Objective burden, resources, and other stressors among informal cancer caregivers: A hidden quality issue? <i>Psycho-Oncology, 20</i>, 44-52. doi:10.1002/pon.1703

Voils, C. L., Yancy, W. S., Jr., Weinberger, M., Bolton, J., Coffman, C. J., Jeffreys, A., … Bosworth, H. B. (2011). The trials and tribulations of enrolling couples in a randomized, controlled trial: A self-management program for hyperlipidemia as a model. <i>Patient Education and Counseling, 84</i>, 33-40. doi:10.1016/j.pec.2010.06.005

Ware, J. E., Kosinski, M., Dewey, J. E., & Gandek, B. (2001). How to score and interpret single-item health status measures: A manual for users of the SF8 health survey. Lincoln, RI: Quality Metric, Inc.

World Health Organization. (2010). 10 facts on physical activity. Retrieved from <a target="_blank" href='http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/physical_activity/en/index.html'>h...

World Health Organization. (2011). New physical activity recommendations for reducing disease and preventing deaths. Retrieved from <a target="_blank" href='http://www.who.int/chp/media/news/releases/2011_2_physicalactivity/en/'>...

Youngmee, K., Spillers, R. L., & Hall, D. L. (2012). Quality of life of family caregivers 5 years after relative's cancer diagnosis: Follow-up of the national quality of life survey for caregivers. <i>Psycho-Oncology, 21</i>, 273-281. doi:10.1002/pon.1888