Purpose/Objectives: To determine the long-term effects of prostate cancer treatment on spouse quality of life (QOL) at 36 months following treatment.
Design: Descriptive-exploratory; community-based study.
Setting: Telephone interviews.
Sample: 95 female spouses of men treated for early-stage prostate cancer.
Methods: A computer-assisted telephone interview was used to evaluate QOL among spouses of prostate cancer survivors at 36 months after initial prostate cancer treatment.
Main Research Variables: Lymphedema, demographic information, self-reported comorbid diseases or medical issues, and medication usage.
Findings: Spouses who had more negative appraisal of caregiving had lower sexual satisfaction, poorer cancer-specific QOL, and poorer mental QOL. Spouses who perceived bother related to the patient's sexual or hormone function reported more threatening appraisals of caregiving, less sexual satisfaction, and poorer QOL.
Conclusions: Spouses continued to experience negative appraisal of caregiving, which affected QOL 36 months after their husbands' treatment for prostate cancer. Additional studies related to factors that influence spouse QOL during survivorship will help guide clinical practice.
Implications for Nursing: Healthcare providers must help spouses find strategies that promote positive coping and lessen negative appraisal. Giving caregivers information early in the treatment process will help them understand what to expect over time. Supporting caregivers and helping them manage stress will enhance QOL during survivorship.
Knowledge Translation: Spouses who experienced more bother related to urinary, sexual, and hormonal function experience more stress and worse QOL at 36 months post-treatment. Spouse appraisal can have a significant effect on QOL. Offering counseling to couples following treatment for prostate cancer may improve QOL by helping couples manage relationship intimacy.
American Cancer Society. (2013). Survival rates for prostate cancer. Retrieved from <a target="_blank" href='http://bit.ly/QZTMLJ'>http://bit.ly/QZTMLJ</a>
Antoni, M.H., Lehman, J.M., Kilbourn, K.M., Boyers, A.E., Culver, J.L., Alferi, S.M., … Carver, C.S. (2001). Cognitive-behavioral stress management intervention decreases the prevalence of depression and enhances benefit finding among women under treatment for early-stage breast cancer. <i>Health Psychology, 20</i>, 20-32.
Badr, H., & Taylor, C.L. (2009). Sexual dysfunction and spousal communication in couples coping with prostate cancer. <i>Psycho-Oncology, 18</i>, 735-746. doi:10.1002/pon.1449
Baider, L., Walach, N., Perry, S., & Kaplan De-Nour, A. (1998). Cancer in married couples: Higher or lower distress? <i>Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 45</i>, 239-248. doi:10.1016/S0022-3999(98)00016-6
Casas, F., Borràs, J.M., Ferrer, F., Guanyabens, N., Gutiérrez del Pozo, R., León, C., … Zapatero, A. (2010). Evidence-based consensus recommendations to improve the quality of life in prostate cancer treatment. <i>Clinical and Translational Oncology, 12</i>, 346-355.
Couper, J., Bloch, S., Love, A., Duchesne, G., Macvean, M., & Kissane, D. (2009). Coping patterns and psychosocial distress in female partners of prostate cancer patients. <i>Psychosomatics, 50</i>, 375-382.
Crowe, H., & Costello, A.J. (2003). Prostate cancer: Perspectives on quality of life and impact of treatment on patients and their partners. <i>Urologic Nursing, 23</i>, 279-285.
de Sales, T., & Cox, H. (2004). Facilitating post-traumatic growth. <i>Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 2</i>, 34. doi:10.1186/1477-7525-2-49
Ferrans, C.E. (1990). Quality of life: Conceptual issues. <i>Seminars in Oncology Nursing, 6</i>, 248-254.
Gray, R.E., Fitch, M.I., Phillips, C., Labrecque, M., & Klotz, L. (1999). Presurgery experiences of prostate cancer patients and their spouses. <i>Cancer Practice, 7</i>, 130-135. doi:10.1016/0749-2081(90)90026-2
Harden, J., Northouse, L., Cimprich, B., Pohl, J.M., Liang, J., & Kershaw, T. (2008). The influence of developmental life stage on quality of life in survivors of prostate cancer and their partners. <i>Journal of Cancer Survivorship, 2</i>, 84-94. doi:10.1007/s11764-008-0048-z
Harden, J.K., Northouse, L.L., & Mood, D.W. (2006). Qualitative analysis of couples' experience with prostate cancer by age cohort. <i>Cancer Nursing, 29</i>, 367-377. doi:10.1097/00002820-200609000-00004
Harden, J.K., Sanda, M.G., Wei, J.T., Yarandi, H., Hembroff, L., Hardy, J., & Northouse, L.L. (2013). Partners' long-term appraisal of their caregiving experience, marital satisfaction, sexual satisfaction, and quality of life 2 years after prostate cancer treatment. <i>Cancer Nursing, 36</i>, 104-113. doi:10.1097/NCC.0b013e3182567c03
Joseph, S. (2004). Client-centred therapy, post-traumatic stress disorder, and post-traumatic growth: Theoretical perspectives and practical implications. <i>Psychology and Psychotherapy, 77</i>, 101-119. doi:10.1348/147608304322874281
Kershaw, T.S., Mood, D.W., Newth, G., Ronis, D.L., Sanda, M.G., Vaishampayan, U., & Northouse, L.L. (2008). Longitudinal analysis of a model to predict quality of life in prostate cancer patients and their spouses. <i>Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 36</i>, 117-128. doi:10.1007/s12160-008-90.58-3
Ko, C.M., Malcarne, V.L., Varni, J.W., Roesch, S.C., Banthia, R., Greenbergs, H.L., & Sadler, G.R. (2005). Problem-solving and distress in prostate cancer patients and their spousal caregivers. <i>Supportive Care in Cancer, 13</i>, 367-374. doi:10.1007/s00520-004-0748-5
Kornblith, A.B., Herr, H.W., Ofman, U.S., Scher, H.I., & Holland, J.C. (1994). Quality of life of patients with prostate cancer and their spouses. The value of a data base in clinical care. <i>Cancer, 73</i>, 2791-2802.
Lee, E.W., Marien, T., Laze, J., Agalliu, I., & Lepor, H. (2012). Comparison of health-related quality-of-life outcomes for African-American and Caucasian-American men after radical prostatectomy. <i>BJU International, 110</i>, 1129-1133. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.10951.x
Manne, S., Ostroff, J., Winkel, G., Goldstein, L., Fox, K., & Grana, G. (2004). Posttraumatic growth after breast cancer: Patient, partner, and couple perspectives. <i>Psychosomatic Medicine, 66</i>, 442-454. doi:10.1097/01.psy.0000127689.38525.7d
Mood, D., & Bickes, J. (1989). Strategies to enhance self-care in radiation therapy. <i>Oncology Nursing Forum, 16</i>(Suppl.), 143.
Namiki, S., & Arai, Y. (2010). Health-related quality of life in men with localized prostate cancer. <i>International Journal of Urology, 17</i>, 125-138.
Northouse, L.L., Mood, D., Templin, T., Mellon, S., & George, T. (2000). Couples' patterns of adjustment to colon cancer. <i>Social Science and Medicine, 50</i>, 271-284. doi:10.1016/S0277-9536(99)00281-6
Northouse, L.L., Mood, D.W., Montie, J.E., Sandler, H.M., Forman, J.D., Hussain, M., … Kershaw, T. (2007). Living with prostate cancer: Patients' and spouses' psychosocial status and quality of life. <i>Journal of Clinical Oncology, 25</i>, 4171-4177.
Oberst, M.T. (1991). <i>Appraisal of caregiving scale: Manual for use.</i> Detroit, MI: Wayne State University.
Pagliarulo, V., Bracarda, S., Eisenberger, M.A., Mottet, N., Schröder, F.H., Sternberg, C.N., & Studer, U.E. (2012). Contemporary role of androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. <i>European Urology, 61</i>, 11-25. doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2011.08.026
Petrie, K.J., Buick, D.L., Weinman, J., & Booth, R.J. (1999). Positive effects of illness reported by myocardial infarction and breast cancer patients. <i>Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 47</i>, 537-543.
Rivers, B.M., August, E.M., Gwede, C.K., Hart, A., Jr., Donovan, K.A., Pow-Sang, J.M., & Quinn, G.P. (2011). Psychosocial issues related to sexual functioning among African-American prostate cancer survivors and their spouses. <i>Psycho-Oncology, 20</i>, 106-110.
Sabourin, S., Valois, P., & Lussier, Y. (2005). Development and validation of a brief version of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale with a nonparametric item analysis model. <i>Psychological Assessment, 17</i>, 15-27. doi:10.1037/1040-35184.108.40.206
Sanda, M.G., Dunn, R.L., Michalski, J., Sandler, H.M., Northouse, L., Hembroff, L., … Wei, J.T. (2008). Quality of life and satisfaction with outcome among prostate-cancer survivors. <i>New England Journal of Medicine, 358</i>, 1250-1261. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa074311
Schulz, U., & Mohamed, N.E. (2004). Turning the tide: Benefit finding after cancer surgery. <i>Social Science and Medicine, 59</i>, 653-662.
Segrin, C., Badger, T.A., & Harrington, J. (2012). Interdependent psychological quality of life in dyads adjusting to prostate cancer. <i>Health Psychology, 31</i>, 70-79. doi:10.1037/a0025394
Spanier, G.B. (1976). Measuring dyadic adjustment: New scales for assessing the quality of marriage and similar dyads. <i>Journal of Marriage and the Family, 38</i>, 15-28. doi:10.2307/350547
Thornton, A.A., & Perez, M.A. (2006). Posttraumatic growth in prostate cancer survivors and their partners. <i>Psycho-Oncology, 15</i>, 285-296.
Tomich, P.L., & Helgeson, V.S. (2004). Is finding something good in the bad always good? Benefit finding among women with breast cancer. <i>Health Psychology, 23</i>, 16-23. doi:10.1037/0278-6220.127.116.11
Ware, J., Jr., Kosinski, M., & Keller, S.D. (1996). A 12-item Short-Form Health Survey: Construction of scales and preliminary tests of reliability and validity. <i>Medical Care, 34</i>, 220-233.
Weisman, A.D., & Worden, J.W. (1976). The existential plight in cancer: Significance of the first 100 days. <i>International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 7</i>, 1-15. doi:10.2190/UQ2G-UGV1-3PPC-6387
Weiss, T. (2002). Posttraumatic growth in women with breast cancer and their husbands: An intersubjective validation study. <i>Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, 20</i>, 65-80. doi:10.1300/J077v20n02_04
Weitzner, M.A., Jacobsen, P.B., Wagner, H., Jr., Friedland, J., & Cox, C. (1999). The Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer (CQOLC) scale: Development and validation of an instrument to measure quality of life of the family caregiver of patients with cancer. <i>Quality of Life Research, 8</i>, 55-63. doi:10.1023/A:1026407010614
Woodward, C., & Joseph, S. (2003). Positive change processes and post-traumatic growth in people who have experienced childhood abuse: Understanding vehicles of change. <i>Psychology and Psychotherapy, 76</i>, 267-283. doi:10.1348/147608303322362497
Wootten, A.C., Burney, S., Foroudi, F., Frydenberg, M., Coleman, G., & Ng, K.T. (2007). Psychological adjustment of survivors of localised prostate cancer: Investigating the role of dyadic adjustment, cognitive appraisal and coping style. <i>Psycho-Oncology, 16</i>, 994-1002.
Zhan, L. (1992). Quality of life: Conceptual and measurement issues. <i>Journal of Advanced Nursing, 17</i>, 795-800.