Quality of Life and Meaning of Illness of Women With Lung Cancer

Linda Sarna

Jean K. Brown

Mary E. Cooley

Roma D. Williams

Cynthia Chernecky

Geraldine Padilla

Leda Layo Danao

ONF 2005, 32(1), E9-E19. DOI: 10.1188/05.ONF.E9-E19

Purpose/Objectives: To describe the quality of life (QOL) of women with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and examine relationships of demographic, clinical, health status, and meaning of illness (MOI) characteristics to QOL.

Jump to a section


    Akechi, T., Okamura, H., Nishiwaki, Y., & Uchitomi, Y. (2001). Psychiatric disorders and associated and predictive factors in patients with unresectable nonsmall cell lung carcinoma: A longitudinal study. Cancer, 92, 2609-2622.

    Buccheri, G. (1998). Depressive reactions to lung cancer are common and often followed by a poor outcome. European Respiratory Journal, 11, 173-178.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2000). State- and sex-specific prevalence of selected characteristics—Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1996 and 1997. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, CDC Surveillance Summaries, 49(SS-6), 1-39.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2002a). Recent trends in mortality rates for four major cancers, by sex and race/ethnicity—United States, 1990-1998. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 51(3), 49-53.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2002b). Women and smoking: A report of the Surgeon General (executive summary). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 51(RR-12), 1-30.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2003). Cigarette smoking-attributable morbidity—United States, 2000. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 52, 842-844.

    Chapple, A., Ziebland, A., & McPherson, A. (2004, June 11). Stigma, shame, and blame experienced by patients with lung cancer: Qualitative study. BMJ, 328, 1470. Retrieved June 15, 2004, from http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/reprint/bmj.38111.639734.7Cv1

    Charlson, M.E., Pompei, P., Ales, K.L., & MacKenzie, C.R. (1987). A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: Development and validation. Journal of Chronic Disease, 40, 373-383.

    Cooley, M.E. (1998). Quality of life in persons with non-small cell lung cancer: A concept analysis. Cancer Nursing, 21, 151-161.

    Cooley, M.E., Sarna, L., Brown, J.K., Williams, R.D., Chernecky, C., Padilla, G., et al. (2003). Challenges of recruitment and retention in multisite clinical research. Cancer Nursing, 26, 376-384.

    Cooley, M.E., Short, T.H., & Moriarty, H.J. (2002). Patterns of symptom distress in adults receiving treatment for lung cancer. Journal of Palliative Care, 18, 150-159.

    Cox, L.S., Africano, N., Tercyak, K.P., & Taylor, K.L. (2003). Nicotine dependence treatment for patients with cancer. Cancer, 98, 632-644.

    Cox, L.S., Patten, C.A., Ebbert, J.O., Drews, A.A., Croghan, G.A., Clark, M.M., et al. (2002). Tobacco use outcomes among patients with lung cancer treated for nicotine dependence. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 20, 3461-3469.

    Cox, L.S., Sloan, J.A., Patten, C.A., Bonner, J.A., Geyer, S.M., McGinnis, W.L., et al. (2002). Smoking behavior of 226 patients with diagnosis of stage IIIA/IIIB non-small cell lung cancer. Psycho-Oncology, 11, 472-478.

    Dales, R.E., Belanger, R., Shamji, F.M., Leech, J., Crepeau, A., & Sachs, H.J. (1994). Quality-of-life following thoracotomy for lung cancer. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 47, 1443-1449.

    Degner, L.F., Hack, T., O'Neil, J., & Kristjanson, L.J. (2003). A new approach to eliciting meaning in the context of breast cancer. Cancer Nursing, 26, 169-178.

    Elixhauser, A., Steiner, C., Harris, D.R., & Coffey, R.M. (1998). Comorbidity measures for use with administrative data. Medical Care, 36, 8-27.

    Evangelista, L.S., Sarna, L., Brecht, M.L., Padilla, G., & Chen, J. (2003). Health perceptions and risk behaviors of lung cancer survivors. Heart and Lung, 32, 131-139.

    Fagerstrom, K.O. (1978). Measuring degree of physical dependence to tobacco smoking with reference to individualization of treatment. Addictive Behaviors, 3, 235-241.

    Fagerstrom, K.O., & Schneider, N.G. (1989). Measuring nicotine dependence: A review of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 12, 159-182.

    Faller, H., Bulzebruck, H., Drings, P., & Lang, H. (1999). Coping, distress, and survival among patients with lung cancer. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 756-762.

    Ferrell, B.R., & Dow, K.H. (1997). Quality of life among long-term survivors. Oncology, 11, 565-571.

    Ferrell, B.R., Dow, K.H., & Grant, M. (1995). Measurement of the quality of life in cancer survivors. Quality of Life Research, 4, 523-531.

    Ferrell, B.R., Dow, K.H., Leigh, S., Ly, J., & Gulasekaram, P. (1995). Quality of life in long-term cancer survivors. Oncology Nursing Forum, 22, 915-922.

    Flegal, K.M., Carrol, M.D., Kuczmarski, R.J., & Johnson, C.L. (1998). Overweight and obesity in the United States: Prevalence and trends, 1960-1994. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 22, 39-47.

    Ganz, P.A., Lee, J.J., & Siau, J. (1991). Quality of life assessment: An independent prognostic variable for survival in lung cancer. Cancer, 67, 3131-3135.

    Garces, Y.I., & Hays, J.T. (2003). Tobacco dependence: Why should an oncologist care? Journal of Clinical Oncology, 21, 1884-1886.

    Ginsburg, M.L., Quirt, C., Ginsburg, A.D., & MacKillop, W.J. (1995). Psychiatric illness and psychosocial concerns of patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 152, 701-708.

    Given, B., Given, C.W., McCorkle, R., Kozachik, S., Cimprich, B., Rahbar, M.H., et al. (2002). Pain and fatigue management: Results of a nursing randomized clinical trial. Oncology Nursing Forum, 29, 949-956.

    Gralla, R.J., & Moinpour, C. (Eds.). (1995). Assessing quality of life in patients with lung cancer: A guide for clinicians [Monograph]. New York: NCM Publishers.

    Gritz, E.R., Nisenbaum, R., Elashoff, R.E., & Holmes, E.C. (1991). Smoking behavior following diagnosis of patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Causes and Control, 2, 105-112.

    Hann, D., Winter, K., & Jacobsen, P. (1999). Measurement of depressive symptoms in cancer patients: Evaluation of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 46, 437-443.

    Hays, R.D., & Morales, L.S. (2001). The RAND-36 measure of health-related quality of life. Annals of Medicine, 33, 350-357.

    Henschke, C.I., & Miettinen, O.S. (2004). Women's susceptibility to tobacco carcinogens. Lung Cancer, 43, 1-5.

    Hill, K.M., Amir, Z., Muers, M.F., Connolly, C.K., & Round, C.E. (2003). Do newly diagnosed lung cancer patients feel their concerns are being met? European Journal of Cancer Care, 12, 35-45.

    Hopwood, P., & Stephens, R.J. (1995). Symptoms at presentation for treatment in patients with lung cancer: Implications for the evaluation of palliative treatment. British Journal of Cancer, 71, 633-636.

    Hopwood, P., & Stephens, R.J. (2000). Depression in patients with lung cancer: Prevalence and risk factors derived from quality-of-life data. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 18, 893-903.

    Jemal, A., Tiwari, R.C., Murray, T., Ghafoor, A., Samuels, A., Ward, E., et al. (2004). Cancer statistics, 2004. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 54, 8-29.

    Katz, J.N., Chang, L.C., Sangha, O., Fossel, A.H., & Bates, D.W. (1996). Can comorbidity be measured by questionnaire rather than medical record review? Medical Care, 34, 73-84.

    Kozachik, S.L., Given, C.W., Given, B.A., Pierce, S.J., Azzouz, F., Rawl, S.M., et al. (2001). Improving depressive symptoms among caregivers of patients with cancer: Results of a randomized clinical trial. Oncology Nursing Forum, 28, 1149-1157.

    Lewisohn, P.M., Seeley, J.R., Roberts, R.E., & Allen, N.B. (1997). Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) as a screening instrument for depression among community-residing older adults. Psychology of Aging, 12, 277-287.

    Maliski, S., Sarna, L., Evangelista, L., & Padilla, G. (2003). The aftermath of lung cancer: Balancing the good and bad. Cancer Nursing, 26, 237-244.

    Mangione, C.M., Goldman, L., Orav, E.J., Marcantonio, E.R., Pedan, A., Ludwig, L.E., et al. (1997). Health-related quality of life after elective surgery: Measurement of longitudinal changes. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 12, 686-697.

    Montazeri, A., Gillis, C.R., & McEwen, J. (1998). Quality of life in patients with lung cancer: A review of literature from 1970 to 1995. Chest, 113, 467-481.

    Montazeri, A., Milroy, R., Hole, D., McEwen, J., & Gillis, C.R. (2003). How quality of life data contribute to our understanding of cancer patients' experiences? A study of patients with lung cancer. Quality of Life Research, 12, 157-166.

    Myrdal, G., Valtysdottir, S., Lambe, M., & Stahle, E. (2003). Quality of life following lung cancer surgey. Thorax, 58, 194-197.

    Ouellette, D., Desbiens, G., Emond, C., & Beauchamp, G. (1998). Lung cancer in women compared with men: Stage, treatment, and survival. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 66, 1140-1143.

    Parker, E.R., Lasater, T.M., Windsor, R., Wilkins, J., Upegui, D.I., & Heimdal, J. (2002). The accuracy of self-reported smoking status assessed by cotinine test strips. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 4, 305-309.

    Passik, S.D., Dugan, W., McDonald, M.V., Rosenfeld, B., Theobald, D.R., & Edgerton, S. (1998). Oncologists' recognition of depression in their patients with cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 16, 1594-1600.

    Patel, J.K., Bach, P.B., & Kris, M.G. (2004). Lung cancer in US women: A contemporary epidemic. JAMA, 291, 1763-1768.

    Radloff, L.S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385-401.

    Radloff, L.S., & Teri, L. (1986). Use of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale with older adults. Clinical Gerontologist, 5, 119-136.

    Rawl, S.M., Given, B.A., Given, C.W., Champion, V.L., Kozachik, S.L., Barton, D., et al. (2002). Intervention to improve psychological functioning for newly diagnosed patients with cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, 29, 967-975.

    Ries, L.A.G., Eisner, M.P., Kosary, C.L., Hankey, B.F., Miller, B.A., Clegg, L., et al. (Eds.). (2000). SEER cancer statistics review, 1973-1997. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute.

    Sarna, L. (1993a). Correlates of symptom distress in women with lung cancer. Cancer Practice, 1, 21-28.

    Sarna, L. (1993b). Women with lung cancer: Impact on quality of life. Quality of Life Research, 2, 13-22.

    Sarna, L., & Brecht, M.L. (1997). Dimensions of symptom distress in women with advanced lung cancer: A factor analysis. Heart and Lung, 26, 23-30.

    Sarna, L., Padilla, G., Holmes, C., Tashkin, D., Brecht, M.L., & Evangelista, L. (2002). Quality of life of long-term survivors of non-small-cell lung cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 20, 2920-2929.

    SRNT Subcommittee on Biochemical Verification. (2002). Biochemical verification of tobacco use and cessation. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 4, 149-159.

    Tammemagi, C.M., Neslund-Dudas, C., Simoff, M., & Kvale, P. (2004). Smoking and lung cancer survival: The role of comorbidity and treatment. Chest, 125, 27-37.

    Uchitomi, Y., Mikami, I., Kugaya, A., Akizuki, N., Nagai, K., Nishiwaki, Y., et al. (2000). Depression after successful treatment for nonsmall cell lung carcinoma: A 3-month follow-up study. Cancer, 89, 1172-1179.

    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2001). Women and smoking: A report of the Surgeon General. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health.

    Wallberg, B., Michelson, H., Nystedt, M., Bolund, C., Degner, L., & Wilking, N. (2003). The meaning of breast cancer. Acta Oncologica, 42, 30-35.

    Ware, J.E., Kosinski, M., & Dewey, J.E. (2000). How to score version 2 of the SF-36 Health Survey. Lincoln, RI: QualityMetric.

    Ware, J.E., Kosinski, M., & Keller, S.D. (1994). SF-36 physical and mental health summary scales: A user's manual. Boston: Health Institute, New England Medical Center.

    Zabora, J., BrintzenhofeSzoc, K., Curbow, B., Hooker, C., & Piantadosi, S. (2001). The prevalence of psychological distress by cancer site. Psycho-Oncology, 10, 19-28.

    Zebrack, B. (2000). Cancer survivors and quality of life: A critical review of the literature. Oncology Nursing Forum, 27, 1395-1401.

    Zieren, H.U., Muller, J.M., Hamberger, U., & Pichlmaier, H. (1996). Quality of life after surgical therapy of bronchogenic carcinoma. European Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery, 10, 233-237.