The electronic world continues to advance in the 21st century. In 2009, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) and the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act were enacted; in response, hospitals and oncology physician offices have or are implementing electronic health records (EHRs). As with any new technology or process, a steep learning curve is associated with the implementation of EHRs. Often, the full impact of a sweeping, nationwide change such as EHRs is not realized for many years after implementation, and many suppositions about the usefulness and benefits of EHRs still exist. The current article focuses on the initial impact of EHRs, their role in diagnosis, and the responses of healthcare providers in patient outcomes and in research.