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Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia Outcomes in Women After Primary Breast Cancer Treatment: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

Ellyn E. Matthews
Ann M. Berger
Sarah J. Schmiege
Paul F. Cook
Michaela S. McCarthy
Camille M. Moore
Mark S. Aloia
ONF 2014, 41(3), 241-253 DOI: 10.1188/14.ONF.41-03AP

Purpose/Objectives: To examine the effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) on sleep improvement, daytime symptoms, and quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors (BCSs) after cancer treatment.

Design: A prospective, longitudinal, randomized, controlled trial.

Setting: Oncology clinics, breast cancer support groups, and communities in Colorado.

Sample: 56 middle-aged BCSs with chronic insomnia.

Methods: Women were randomly assigned to CBTI or behavioral placebo treatment (BPT) and completed measures of sleep, QOL, functioning, fatigue, and mood at baseline, postintervention, and at three- and six-month follow-ups.

Main Research Variables: Sleep outcomes (e.g., sleep efficiency, sleep latency, total sleep time, wake after sleep onset, number of nightly awakenings); secondary variables included sleep medication use, insomnia severity, QOL, physical function, cognitive function, fatigue, depression, anxiety, and sleep attitudes or knowledge.

Findings: Sleep efficiency and latency improved more in the CBTI group than the BPT group; this difference was maintained during follow-up. Women in the CBTI group had less subjective insomnia, greater improvements in physical and cognitive functioning, positive sleep attitudes, and increased sleep hygiene knowledge. No group differences in improvement were noted relative to QOL, fatigue, or mood.

Conclusions: Nurse-delivered CBTI appears to be beneficial for BCSs' sleep latency/efficiency, insomnia severity, functioning, sleep knowledge, and attitudes more than active placebo, with sustained benefit over time.

Implications for Nursing: Oncology nurses are in a unique position to identify insomnia in cancer survivors. When sleep disturbances become chronic, nurses need to make recommendations and referrals.

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