Purpose/Objectives: To investigate how familial communication about prostate cancer (PCa) risk and screening affects sons of men with PCa.
Research Approach: Qualitative grounded theory.
Setting: Southern California.
Participants: 17 Latino sons of PCa survivors.
Methodologic Approach: The team conducted semistructured interviews and follow-up interviews. Therefore, the sample includes 25 transcripts. Data were analyzed with a mix of a priori topical codes and grounded theory techniques.
Findings: Sons were in need of information about familial risk and screening options. They became sensitized to PCa, desired information, and held protective intentions. Hopeful intentions came up against cultural taboos around sex, reproductive health, and intimacy that limited discussions between fathers and sons. Fathers were a valued source of information but play various roles, which affect sons' screening intentions. Open communication between father and son promoted awareness of screening and familial risk.
Conclusions: Uncertainty about familial risk and screening options, especially early detection strategies, was exacerbated by cultural taboos around PCa. Fathers could have been primary and credible advocates for shared decision making, but sons had difficulty learning from their fathers' experience.
Interpretation: Findings from the study can help inform community-based interventions with Latino families, help to culturally tailor health messaging, and sensitize clinicians to a group that needs concerted counseling about PCa risk and screening.
American Cancer Society. (2014). <i>Cancer facts and figures, 2014.</i> Retrieved from <a target="_blank" href='http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@research/documents/webcontent/...@research/documents/webcontent/acspc-042151.pdf</a>
Beebe-Dimmer, J. L., Wood, D. P., Gruber, S. B., Chilson, D. M., Zuhlke, K. A., Claeys, G. B., & Cooney, K. A. (2004). Risk perception and concern among brothers of men with prostate carcinoma. <i>Cancer, 100</i>, 1537-1544. doi:10.1002/cncr.20121
Bradley, C., Given, C., & Roberts, C. (2003). Late stage cancers in a Medicaid-insured population. <i>Medical Care, 41</i>, 722-728.
Brandt, A., Bermejo, J. L., Sundquist, J., & Hemminki, K. (2010). Age-specific risk of incident prostate cancer and risk of death from prostate cancer defined by the number of affected family members. <i>European Urology, 58</i>, 275-280. doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2010.02.002
Bratt, O. (2007). What should a urologist know about hereditary predisposition to prostate cancer? <i>BJU International, 99</i>, 743-748. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2006.06666.x
Bratt, O., Emanuelsson, M., & Grönberg, H. (2003). Psychological aspects of screening in families with hereditary prostate cancer. <i>Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, 37</i>, 5-9. doi:10.1080/00365590310008604
Christophe, V., Vennin, P., Corbeil, M., Adenis, C., & Reich, M. (2009). Social sharing of genetic information in the family: A study on hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. <i>Journal of Health Psychology, 14</i>, 855-860. doi:10.1177/1359105309340981
Colloca, G., & Venturino, A. (2011). The evolving role of familial history for prostate cancer. <i>Acta Oncologica, 50</i>, 14-24.
Consedine, N. S., Horton, D., Ungar, T., Joe, A. K., Ramirez, P., & Borrell, L. (2007). Fear, knowledge, and efficacy beliefs differentially predict the frequency of digital rectal examination versus prostate specific antigen screening in ethnically diverse samples of older men. <i>American Journal of Men's Health, 1</i>, 29-43. doi:10.1177/1557988306293495
Consedine, N. S., Morgenstern, A. H., Kudadjie-Gyamfi, E., Magai, C., & Neugut, A. I. (2006). Prostate cancer screening behavior in men from seven ethnic groups: The fear factor. <i>Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, 15</i>, 228-237. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.epi-05-0019
Getrich, C. M., Sussman, A. L., Helitzer, D. L., Hoffman, R. M., Warner, T. D., Sánchez, V., … Rhyne, R. L. (2012). Expressions of machismo in colorectal cancer screening among New Mexico Hispanic subpopulations. <i>Qualitative Health Research, 22</i>, 546-559. doi:10.1177/1049732311424509
Gilligan, T. (2005). Social disparities and prostate cancer: Mapping the gaps in our knowledge. <i>Cancer Causes and Control, 16</i>, 45-53.
Harris, J. N., Hay, J., Kuniyuki, A., Asgari, M. M., Press, N., & Bowen, D. J. (2010). Using a family systems approach to investigate cancer risk communication within melanoma families. <i>Psycho-Oncology, 19</i>, 1102-1111. doi:10.1002/pon.1667
Klein, J. B., Nguyen, C. T., Saffore, L., Modlin, C., III, & Modlin, C. S., Jr. (2010). Racial disparities in urologic health care. <i>Journal of the National Medical Association, 102</i>, 108-117.
Lagos, V. I., Perez, M. A., Ricker, C. N., Blazer, K. R., Santiago, N. M., Feldman, N., … Weitzel, J. N. (2008). Social-cognitive aspects of underserved Latinas preparing to undergo genetic cancer risk assessment for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. <i>Psycho-Oncology, 17</i>, 774-782. doi:10.1002/pon.1358
Madersbacher, S., Alcaraz, A., Emberton, M., Hammerer, P., Ponholzer, A., Schröder, F. H., & Tubaro, A. (2011). The influence of family history on prostate cancer risk: Implications for clinical management. <i>BJU International, 107</i>, 716-721. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2010.10024.x
Maliski, S. L., Connor, S. E., & Litwin, M. S. (2012). Purposeful interaction: Ways Latino men communicate about prostate cancer. <i>Oncology Nursing Forum, 39</i>, 603-608. doi:10.1188/12.ONF.603-608
McDowell, M. E., Occhipinti, S., Gardiner, R. A., Baade, P. D., & Steginga, S. K. (2009). A review of prostate-specific antigen screening prevalence and risk perceptions for first-degree relatives of men with prostate cancer. <i>European Journal of Cancer Care, 18</i>, 545-555. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2354.2008.01046.x
McFall, S. L. (2007). Use and awareness of prostate specific antigen tests and race/ethnicity. <i>Journal of Urology, 177</i>, 1475-1480.
Palmquist, A. L., Koehly, L., Peterson, S., Shegog, M., Vernon, S., & Gritz, E. (2010). "The Cancer Bond": Exploring the formation of cancer risk perception in families with Lynch syndrome. <i>Journal of Genetic Counseling, 19</i>, 473-486. doi:10.1007/s10897-010-9299-8
Qaseem, A., Barry, M. J., Denberg, T. D., Owens, D. K., & Shekelle, P. (2013). Screening for prostate cancer: A guidance statement from the clinical guidelines committee of the American College of Physicians. <i>Annals of Internal Medicine, 158</i>, 761-769. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-158-10-201305210-00633
Shaw, E. K., Scott, J. G., & Ferrante, J. M. (2013). The influence of family ties on men's prostate cancer screening, biopsy, and treatment decisions. <i>American Journal of Men's Health, 7</i>, 461-471.
Tilburt, J. C., James, K. M., Sinicrope, P. S., Eton, D. T., Costello, B. A., Carey, J., … Nowakowski, K. E. (2011). <i>Factors influencing cancer risk perception in high risk populations: A systematic review.</i> Retrieved from <a target="_blank" href='http://www.hccpjournal.com/content/pdf/1897-4287-9-2.pdf'>http://www.hcc...
Vadaparampil, S., McIntyre, J., & Quinn, G. (2010). Awareness, perceptions, and provider recommendation related to genetic testing for hereditary breast cancer risk among at-risk Hispanic women: Similarities and variations by sub-ethnicity. <i>Journal of Genetic Counseling, 19</i>, 618-629. doi:10.1007/s10897-010-9316-y
Wakefield, C. E., Meiser, B., Gaff, C. L., Barratt, A., Patel, M. I., Suthers, G., … Mann, G. J. (2008). Issues faced by unaffected men with a family history of prostate cancer: A multidisciplinary overview. <i>Journal of Urology, 180</i>, 38-46. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2008.03.020