Purpose/Objectives: To determine whether exercise could reduce biomarkers of cancer progression in prostate cancer survivors (PCSs) on androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT).
Design: Randomized, controlled trial.
Setting: Oregon Health and Science University School of Nursing.
Sample: 51 PCSs randomized to one year of resistance and impact training or a stretching control group.
Methods: The authors investigated changes in body composition and cancer-related biomarkers, and the influence of age and fat loss on changes in biomarkers.
Main Research Variables: Body composition (total fat, trunk fat, and lean mass), insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, and sex hormone–binding globulin.
Findings: In the 36 PCSs with baseline and 12-month data, total fat (p = 0.02) and trunk fat (p = 0.06) mass decreased in the training group compared to gains in controls. Loss of total and trunk fat each mediated the relationship between groups and one-year change in insulin (p < 0.05). Age moderated the insulin response to exercise where insulin reductions were smaller with increasing age (p = 0.03).
Conclusions: Resistance and impact exercise may reduce body fat among PCSs undergoing ADT, in turn exerting an insulin-lowering effect.
Implications for Nursing: Nurses should counsel PCSs to exercise to reduce the risk of obesity and associated conditions, including cancer progression.