Problem Identification: Continued smoking after a cancer diagnosis can lead to development of potential treatment interactions, secondary cancers, and comorbid conditions. The purpose of this article is to examine the prevalence of smoking after diagnosis and present current management strategies.
Literature Search: The terms cancer, survivorship, behavior, smoking, and quitlines were searched in PubMed and CINAHL® from the start of the databases to December 2016. Statistics, guidelines, and background information were obtained from websites of organizations such as the American Cancer Society, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Data Evaluation: Of 17 relevant articles, 12 were analyzed to identify variables among survivors who continued to smoke versus those who successfully quit. Five articles were analyzed to identify characteristics of successful smoking cessation interventions.
Synthesis: Survivors who are younger, female, and not partnered and those who report less socioeconomic and psychosocial support may be at greater risk for continued smoking. Peer counseling, cognitive behavioral therapy exercises, and use of frameworks to guide interventions are unique properties of successful cessation interventions.
Implications for Research: Continued research on cancer-specific tobacco cessation interventions and exploration of why current evidence-based therapies are not working in this population are warranted.