Problem Identification: Cancer screening may reduce mortality and frequency of the disease. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ) individuals are less likely than non-LGBTQ individuals to present for cancer screening.
Literature Search: A literature search was performed using CINAHL®, PsycINFO®, and PubMed®. Articles were included if they were published in English from 2008 to 2018 and addressed barriers or facilitators to cancer screening in LGBTQ populations.
Data Evaluation: Data were organized by thematic matrix and classified according to the multilevel influences on the cancer care continuum framework: individual patient, family and social supports, provider/team, organization and/or practice setting, local community environment, state health policy environment, and national health policy environment.
Synthesis: This integrative review found that the lack of cancer screening data and knowledge about screening guidelines by LGBTQ populations and providers were major barriers to cancer screening adherence. Provider-created welcoming environments and caregiver inclusion were facilitators.
Implications for Practice: Determinants of health-seeking behavior included patients’ and providers’ lack of cancer screening knowledge, as well as perceived discrimination. Nurses are in a unique position to provide cancer screening information and culturally sensitive care for LGBTQ populations with adequate education.