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Article

Barriers and Facilitators to Cancer Screening Among LGBTQ Individuals With Cancer

Kelly S. Haviland
Shannon Swette
Teresa Kelechi
Martina Mueller
ONF 2020, 47(1), 44-55 DOI: 10.1188/20.ONF.44-55

Problem Identification: Cancer screening may reduce mortality and frequency of the disease. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ) individuals are less likely than non-LGBTQ individuals to present for cancer screening.

Literature Search: A literature search was performed using CINAHL®, PsycINFO®, and PubMed®. Articles were included if they were published in English from 2008 to 2018 and addressed barriers or facilitators to cancer screening in LGBTQ populations.

Data Evaluation: Data were organized by thematic matrix and classified according to the multilevel influences on the cancer care continuum framework: individual patient, family and social supports, provider/team, organization and/or practice setting, local community environment, state health policy environment, and national health policy environment.

Synthesis: This integrative review found that the lack of cancer screening data and knowledge about screening guidelines by LGBTQ populations and providers were major barriers to cancer screening adherence. Provider-created welcoming environments and caregiver inclusion were facilitators.

Implications for Practice: Determinants of health-seeking behavior included patients’ and providers’ lack of cancer screening knowledge, as well as perceived discrimination. Nurses are in a unique position to provide cancer screening information and culturally sensitive care for LGBTQ populations with adequate education.

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