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ONS Guidelines™ to Support Patient Adherence to Oral Anticancer Medications

Sarah M. Belcher
Emily Mackler
Benyam Muluneh
Mary K. Anderson
Elizabeth Bettencourt
Ryan K. DasGupta
Erica Hall
Jennifer Elliott
Michelle Karlin
Diana Kostoff
Victoria K. Marshall
Vanessa E. Millisor
Maegan Molnar
Susan M. Schneider
Janelle Tipton
Susan Yackzan
Kristine B. LeFebvre
Kapeena Sivakumaran
Haya Waseem
Rebecca L. Morgan
ONF 2022, 1-17 DOI:

Purpose: This evidence-based guideline intends to support patients, clinicians, and others regarding interventions and processes to support patient adherence to oral anticancer medications (OAMs).

Methodologic Approach: A panel of healthcare professionals and patient representatives developed a clinical practice guideline to support patients taking OAMs. GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) methodology and criteria for trustworthy guidelines were followed. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias 2 tool. A quantitative or narrative synthesis of the evidence was completed. Certainty of the evidence was assessed using GRADE.

Findings: The panel agreed on recommendations and suggested an adherence risk assessment, education addressing adherence, ongoing assessment, proactive follow-up, coaching, and motivational interviewing in addition to usual care. The panel suggested the implementation of a structured OAM program.

Implications for Nursing: As cancer treatment shifts from clinic to home settings, interventions and programs to support patients on OAMs are needed.

Supplementary material can be found at https://bit.ly/3OmKewx