Problem Identification: This review identifies specific cardiotoxicity related to anthracycline chemotherapy, specific risk factors related to increased anthracycline chemotherapy–induced cardiotoxicity, and underlying mechanisms of action of anthracycline chemotherapy–induced cardiotoxicity.
Literature Search: PubMed®, CINAHL®, Embase®, and Web of Science were searched in May 2018 using keywords related to heart diseases, anthracycline chemotherapy, and breast cancer.
Data Evaluation: Data were extracted, and study quality was assessed according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines.
Synthesis: 1,117 articles were identified through the literature search. After a review of the abstracts and articles, 15 clinical studies were identified for the final analysis by using exclusion and inclusion criteria.
Implications for Practice: Nurses should recognize the critical elements for prevention and early detection of anthracycline chemotherapy–induced cardiotoxicity.