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Pain and Spirituality Outcomes Among Women With Advanced Breast Cancer Participating in a Foot Reflexology Trial

Megan Miller
Ding Xu
Rebecca Lehto
Jason Moser
Horng-Shiuann Wu
Gwen Wyatt
ONF 2021, 48(1), 31-43 DOI: 10.1188/21.ONF.31-43

Objectives: To examine pain and spirituality, demographic and clinical factors associated with pain and spirituality, the contribution of spirituality to experiences of pain over time, and how pain and spirituality relate to engagement with a caregiver-delivered intervention.

Sample & Setting: Women with advanced breast cancer (N = 256) enrolled in a home-based randomized controlled trial of foot reflexology.

Methods & Variables: Secondary analyses were conducted with baseline and postintervention data. Stepwise model building, linear mixed-effects modeling, and negative binomial regression were used.

Results: Participants who were younger, not married or partnered, not employed, or receiving hormonal therapy had increased odds of higher pain levels. Those who were older, non-White, or Christian had increased odds of higher spirituality. Spirituality’s contribution to pain was not significant over time.

Implications for Nursing: Women in this sample experienced moderate pain, on average, at baseline. Women with specific demographic and clinical characteristics may require additional support with pain management and spiritual care.

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